Research has shown an inverse relationship between value perception and horror vacui. Value perception is the worth a product/service has in the mind of a consumer. The premise for this theory is that horror vacui appeals to poor, less-educated consumers. Rich consumers are accustomed to having more; therefore, they expect less. Simply stated, as the number of objects increases, the value decreases. This can be found in clothing storefronts, billboards, and much more. The figures below demonstrate the correlation between space and price.
Horror vacui isn't meant to drive design to minimalism. With every design a happy medium exists. Although the BMW car billboard has less content, it still conveys the necessary message. Elegant design is not reserved to simple content. Apple's iOS6 web page is an example of distributing sizable content effectively. The possibilities are endless.